Most educators know how to give feedback using the “SH#T Sandwich Technique” [Good points followed by bad points followed by a “there’s still hope for the future” statement].
Here’s a great link by the Alberta Rural Physicians Action Plan that provides concise and high-quality teaching tools for clinicians including how to give effective feedback.[bookmark this site]
Feedback and the Learning cycle:
Learners exist in a cycle of competence. You need to know where they are in the cycle so that you can assist.
- unconsciously incompetent [make them aware]
- consciously incompetent [find out why they seem to be making a poor choice]
- consciously competent [need support and encouragement]
- unconsciously competent [need a challenge]
Prime the learner for feedback before learning activity:
- Mutually set goals
- Tell them that you’re going to be collaborative
- Anticipate giving feedback
- Call it “feedback” or “coaching”
Provide feedback as follows:
- Encourage Student’s self-assessment
- Reinforce the good points in this self-assessment
- Ask about problem areas
- Correct mistakes by:
- encouraging reflection and self-correction
- suggesting modifications
- be specific
- Interjections during bedside teaching. NOTE: these need to be done in a non-threatening manner and really should only be reserved for more critical errors.
[note the refreshing absence of the SH#T sandwich]